Roger Elvick was a prominent sovereign citizen guru from the 1980s through the 2000s. In 1999, he popularized "redemption theory," a set of sovereign citizen theories that are still popular today. Elvick had a long criminal history. In 1990, he was sentenced in North Dakota to four years in prison for fictitious financial instruments he had distributed in the 1980s. In 1991, Elvick was found guilty by a federal jury in Hawaii of conspiracy to impede justice and was sentenced to five years in federal prison and three years of supervised release. He served his time, but was convicted again in April 2005 of forgery, extortion and corrupt business activity.