Khazars were a group of Eastern European non-Jews who allegedly converted to Judaism in the eighth century. Some antisemites believe that modern Jews are descended from those Khazars, rather than from the ancient Israelites described in the Bible. This theory aims to dispute the legitimacy of those who practice Judaism today, undermining both the religious tenets of Judaism and Jews' historical connection to the land of Israel. Some antisemties refer to Jews as the "Khazarian Mafia." Some have associated the Khazars with ISIS and others have even claimed that the Khazarian Mafia is responsible for 9/11.

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